This study was designed to identify and describe the stages of preservice development in a Professional Development School (PDS) for teachers of students with emotional disturbance. This study investigated two questions: (a) How does a preservice teacher for students with serious emotional disturbance in a one year full time PDS progress through a series of developmental stages, and (b) what are the opportunities that contribute to the learning of the preservice teacher in a PDS?

This was a qualitative study in which seven data sources from preservice teachers were collected over a nine-month period. These included videotaped teaching episodes, informal and formal interviews, conversations in weekly seminars, significant others in training interviews, journals, and statements of teaching philosophy. Based on the emergent themes that this data generated, a theoretical model of preservice teacher development was constructed. Confidence, fear, caution and competence are the four stages identified in A Model for Preservice Teacher Development. Sixteen opportunities for preservice teacher learning in a PDS environment were described. The researcher's daily presence at the PDS accounted for the richness of the data. Implications were made for further research and practice. Recommendations for teacher education reform using PDS models were delineated.

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In recent years, educational reformers have emphasized that future teachers must participate early and continuously during their pre-service training in the school arena in which they will eventually be employed (Darling-Hammond, 1996; Darling-Hammond, 1994; Darling-Hammond & Cobb, 1995; Gehrke, 1991; Rust, 1994; NCES, 1993; NEA, 1992; Seidel, 1997; Sykes, 1985; Veenman, 1984; Zepeda & Ponticell, 1996). Nationwide, school districts and universities are forming collaborations that provide insight into and experience in the culture of the teaching profession for the pre-service teacher. These collaborations, called Professional Development Schools (PDSs), offered opportunities for veteran teachers to share their expertise and experiences with upcoming generations of teachers as well as retool their own skills.

This partnership between universities and schools provide a pathway that allows the pre-service teacher to mature and become socialized into the profession more quickly than in traditional student teaching preparation (Collins, 1995; Darling-Hammond, 1994; Ellsworth, & Albers, 1995; Goodlad, 1995; Kennedy, 1992; Lancy, 1997; Lieberman, 1992; Petrie, 1995; Selke & Kueter, 1995; Slick, 1995; Stallings, 1995; Stoddart, 1995; Wilder, 1995; Zeichner, 1997).

In 1990, the Holmes Group called for the creation of PDSs to serve as catalysts for the reform of education, teaching, teacher development and schools (Holmes Group, 1990). The mandate was clear: teacher education faculty must become active participants with their school-based colleagues in the facilitation of more meaningful learning for all students. The PDS initiative seemed to be (a) a responding comprehensive response to the educational reform activities supporting site-based, co-constructivist inquiry into teaching and teacher development; (b) forming partnerships between school and university faculties for training purposes; (c) envisioning schools as the center of educational change; and (d) fostering teacher and community empowerment (Levine, 1992; Lieberman, 1992; Lyons, 1997; Neufeld, 1992; Pechman, 1992; Levine & Tractman, 1997, Zimpher, 1990).

The following sections are as follows: (a) background to the problem, (b) statement of the problem, (c) purpose of the study, and (d) significance of the study. The following sections explained both the need and importance of this research effort.

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Background of the Problem

The number of students with ED has increased between the years 1987-1997 (IDEA, 1997). According to estimates prepared by a multidisciplinary group convened by Health and Human Services' Center for Health Services an estimated 4-5 million children have ED. As a result, their functioning at home, in school or in the community is impaired (Children's Defense Fund, 1997). Fewer than one in four receive the necessary treatment and schooling (Children's Defense Fund, 1997). There is an acute shortage of qualified teachers to teach these students (King-Sears, 1992; USDOE, 1990). In 1995, the Professions in Special Education National Clearinghouse reported projections of the need for special education teachers made by the Department of Labor Statistics.

This report cited a minimum of 57,000 ED teachers, a projected need for additional 17,000 ED teachers, for the year 2005. In 1989, a Coalition that represented the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDE), the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA), Higher Education Council for Special Education (HECSE), Teacher Education Division of CEC (TED), and the Council of Administrators in Special Education (CASE), presented a report to Congress with recommendations for the re-authorization of PL 94-142 (currently PL 101-976) highlighting the severity and implications of the continuing personnel shortages in the field of special education generally. In addition there are many researchers who document the profound need for well-trained educators of students with emotional disturbance (Darling-Hammond, 1991; Epstein, Foley & Cullinan, 1992; Epstein & Patton, 1992; Hughes-Booker, 1994; MacDonald, 1991; Rizzo & Zabel; 1988; Smith & Luckasson, 1992; Steinberg, 1991; Update, 1991).

Not only are there not enough teachers of students with ED, but also those that are trained in the field are leaving the profession in great numbers. Teachers of students with ED leave the field more often than other regular and special education teachers (Fimian, 1988; McIntyre, 1989; Page, Page, & Milton, 1983; Schmid et. al., 1991; Sweeney, Warren, & Kemis, 1991; Veenman, 1984; Westling & Whitten, 1996). The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDE) have identified teacher attrition as the foremost issue confronting special education in the next decade (NASDE, 1990). Boe (1991) found that the attrition rate for special educators was 7.3% compared to that of 5.3% for regular educators.

The attrition rates were the highest in teaching areas for emotionally disturbed and multi-categorical resource (McKaub, 1983; George, George, and Groesnick, 1992; Metzke, 1988). Because a high proportion of teachers of students with ED leave the field of teaching, it is imperative to understand the nature of their concerns during the training process. To understand their concerns may allow teacher educators to meet the developmental needs of those training in the field of special education. The research also examined the PDS environment as to determine the opportunities that it afforded a pre-service teacher of students with ED in a one-year full time internship. The next section describes the statement of the problem.

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Statement of the Problem

The nature and needs of this challenging population requires that their teachers understand, endure and therapeutically respond to personal threats (Grimmett, 1994; Murphy, 1995; Neufield, 1994; Woods, 1994). Pre-service teachers must be prepared to face the myriad of professional responsibilities that will confront them during the first year of teaching (Beare, 1991; Epstein, Foley, & Cullinan, 1992; Jones, 1992; Morse, 1996). Preservice teacher preparation affords the opportunity for teacher educators of teachers for students with ED to develop preservice teachers' insights and skills about the reality demands of working with this population. The result is likely to be increased retention in the field. Understanding the developmental process of pre-service teachers in a PDS for students with ED will assist university teacher educators to better respond to individual instructional and emotional needs of the teachers in training raising the probability that as special educators, graduated pre-service teachers will effectively respond to students' needs. This study described the stages of pre-service development in a professional development school for teachers of students with ED.

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Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study are to determine how pre-service teachers for students with emotional disturbance (ED) in a one-year full time PDS progress through a series of developmental stages and what opportunities contribute to the learning of the pre-service teacher of students with ED in a PDS.

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Significance of the Study

A review of the literature revealed no studies to date that focus on the developmental process of pre-service teachers in(a) special education, (b)special education of students with ED, (c) in a PDS environment, or (d) during a one year full time internship. This study will fill this gap. The findings of this study will begin the development of a theory about pre-service teacher developmental stages of teachers training to work with ED students upon which future studies can be derived. The findings will also describe the opportunities for learning afforded to the pre-service teacher of students with ED in a PDS.

The following is a list of literature headings that were searched: (1) pre-service teacher, (2) special education, (3) development, (4) emotional disturbance, (5) professional development school, (6) teacher education, (7) teacher training, (8) internship, (9) educational reform, (10) school reform, (11) teacher development, (12) professional development, (13) teacher preparation, (14) student teaching, (15) burn-out, (16) effects of ED students, (17) mentor, (18) stages of concern, (19) beginning teachers, (20) feedback, (21) teacher perspective, (22) student teacher supervisor, (23) role perception, (24) videotape, (25) teaching philosophy (26) attitudes, (27) beliefs, (28) stress, (29) cognitive development, (30) emotional development, (31) social-emotional development. This extensive search led to the conclusion that there is scant, if any, published information about the area under investigation in this study. There is a gap in the literature surrounding the issues of pre-service teacher of students with ED development in a one-year full time internship at a PDS and the opportunities for learning afforded to the pre-service teacher of students with ED in a PDS. This research study will examine these neglected areas.

Typically a child with serious emotional disturbance is either under-socialized or negatively socialized and acts out toward self and others or inward in self-destructive ways. The teacher of students with ED must be prepared to manage a wide range of students' behaviors. The child with emotional disturbance uses a host of defense mechanisms by which to deal with the world. The teacher must be intra/interpersonally insightful in order to not perpetuate those behaviors in students. The teacher must be knowledgeable about the complex nature and needs of this population. The child with serious emotional disturbance is under-socialized or negatively socialized and acts out toward self and others or inward in self-destructive ways. The teacher must be prepared to manage a wide range of behaviors. The child with emotional disturbance uses a host of defense mechanisms by which to deal with the world. This requires that the teacher is intra/interpersonally insightful in order not to perpetuate those behaviors in students. The teacher must be knowledgeable about the complex nature and needs of this population. The child with ED requires specifically designed academic and programmatic support. The teacher must be prepared to respond to the diversity and complexity of the academic needs of students with emotional disturbance.

Given the vast range of student needs and continual demands upon the teacher, it is hypothesized that a pre-service teacher training for one year full time in a PDS that is specific to the preparation of teachers for students with ED will be better prepared professionally to meet these for the challenges in the first year as a special educator. Special educators trained this way are immersed in the daily activities of the school. In this context, pre-service teachers can, among other things, experiment with teaching strategies, develop a repertoire of behavior management interventions, interact with interdisciplinary professionals, make theory meaningful through practice and become socialized to the profession. The effects of this particular kind of training need further investigation. The need for special educators specifically trained in the field of emotional disturbance, who are prepared to effectively teach this population, is well documented (Billingsley & Cross, 1991; Epstein, Patton, 1992; Epstein, 1993; Fredericks, 1994; Gable, 1992; Kauffman, 1986; Lewis, 1991; Lowenthal, 1996; Nelson & Person, 1991; Rizzo & Zabel, 1988; Smith & Luckasson, 1992; Steinberg, 1991). Training requires a sophisticated integration among the theories germane to development and psychological functioning; pedagogy; and preservice teachers' willingness to reflect and introspect. The significance of this study is to enable teacher educators to train special educators to work with students with ED by responding more sensitively and precisely to preservice teachers' developmental stages.

Research Questions

This study investigated how does a preservice teacher for students with serious emotional disturbance in a one-year full time PDS progress through a series of developmental stages.


A qualitative approach employing grounded theory was used to inquire about how preservice teachers develop throughout their one-year full time internship in a PDS. The unique developmental process of the preservice teacher in a one year internship within a PDS for students with SED merited a qualitative research design that (a) facilitated the description of the contextual elements of the stages of development of a teacher in this type of setting and (b) allowed for inductive hypothesis generation.

How a pre-service teacher in a PDS develops is unknown although there is a call to conduct research about the process (Hamlin, 1997; Kroll, 1997; Millwater, 1997; Cambone, 1996; Cifuentes, 1996; Hayes, 1996; Meyers, 1996; Paul, 1996; Renick, 1996; Scannell, 1996; Smith, 1996; Steffel, 1996; Telese, 1996). The literature search revealed an absence of research about the stages through which a preservice teacher for students with SED progresses during a yearlong internship in a PDS. Understanding how the development occurred required understanding the context of the PDS learning environment. Using grounded theory I learned about the preservice teachers and their development over time. The unit of analysis is the individual. Looking at the individual, the effort is to understand the entirety.

The group was composed of the six graduate students who were enrolled in 1997-1998 special education full time, one year, 39 credit hour program of study leading to a Master of Arts Degree in Education and Human Development with a specialization in special education with children with serious emotional disturbance. The name of the program is Clinical Internship with Children with Serious Emotional Disturbance, The Professional Development School at Pathways/Hyattsville. Graduate students' demographics were as follows:

(1) one male and five females,
(2) age range from 21 to 43 years old,
(3) three married and three single,
(4) one Caucasian and five African-American,
(5) two each with a psychology and English major,
(6) one each with a social work and zoology major,
(7) two with double college majors in education,
(8) one with prior graduate school coursework in education,
(9) three with prior professional classroom experience, and
(10) two with prior special education teaching experience.

In the study the names of the subjects were changed to maintain anonymity. The six graduate students who comprised the sample for the purposes of this study were those working full time as preservice teachers at the Pathways/Hyattsville School. The preservice teachers were fully immersed in the daily operation of the site. Over the course of the year their responsibilities proceeded accordingly: (1) initial observation of and interaction with students at PH; (2) planning and implementation of lessons; (3) decision making about behavior management and instruction; (4) interventions; and (5) conducting an intensive internship, during which the preservice teacher team articulates the entire day of classroom and related activities without the presence of the training teacher (Belknap & Mosca, 1998).

   Research procedures
Qualitative research methods were selected for this study both because it was an exploratory descriptive study in an area previously unexplored. Qualitative research provided for data rich in detail and embedded in context (Eisner, 1991; Patton, 1990; Maxwell, 1996; LeCompte, 1993). Videotaped preservice teachers' teaching episodes, preservice teachers' interviews, and preservice teachers' journals were the primary sources of data collection. In addition, interviews with preservice teachers' significant others affiliated with their M.A. study, themes of weekly seminars and statements of educational philosophies will be used as data sources.

Qualitative methodology is suitable for five reasons: (a) to understand the meaning of preservice teachers' development, (b) to understand the particular context within which participants act and the influence that this context has on their development, (c) to identify unanticipated phenomena and influences that may occur that would effect their developmental process, (d) to understand the process by which events and actions take place during the graduate internship experience and (e) to develop causal explanations of the preservice teachers' development (Maxwell, 1996). This study of the stages of preservice development in a PDS for teachers of students with ED involved an investigation of each of these elements. To facilitate this effort, the grounded theory approach to analyzing data was employed for this study.

Grounded theory methods were used to analyze the data (Chamaz, 1983; 1990; Glaser, 1978; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss, 1987; Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The grounded theory methods that were used included: (1) examining the interviews and other data for differences in development, (2) studying interviews and written accounts for themes, (3) building analytical categories from preservice teachers' definitions of and perceptions of their situational concerns; (4) conducting further interviews to redefine the categories, (5) re-reading the personal accounts in order to gain perspective. The process in the identification of major themes served to integrate the analysis. The constant comparative method of analysis was used and its coding procedures were used. The constant comparative method required that I first compare items in each category, then draw up categories and, finally, compare categories. As the Research Associate based on-site at P/H, I was a participant observer. The researcher's position and activities related to that position as on-site Research Associate at the Pathways/Hyattsville positively enhanced the study because in order to gain trust with the subjects it was necessary to have an insider's role in the system.

The following assumptions underlie the study:

1. Preservice teachers for students with ED in a one-year full time internship within a PDS do engage in a developmental process.
2. Development both proceeds and regresses incrementally and gradually.
3. Entry-level competencies of preservice teachers for students with SED in a full time one-year internship in a PDS will vary among participants in the study.
4. The PDS environment influences preservice training.
5. The preservice teacher will accurately communicate their concerns through various means of data collection: journals, formal interviews, and informal interviews.
6. Preservice teachers' identified significant others will accurately reflect upon and describe their opinions of the preservice teachers' development.
7. The data collected will be trustworthy and credible (Lincoln & Guba, 1997).
8. The methodology chosen will allow me to accurately represent the field.
9. The data collected in this study will accurately portray truthfulness and credibility (Lincoln & Guba, 1997).
10. Triangulation- the use of multiple data sources- will ensure an accurate portrayal of the field.

The following are limitations that underlie the study:
1. Conclusions may be made based on data that may be collected that fits the researcher's existing theory or preconceptions and the selection of data that stands out to the researcher.
2. The influence of the researcher on the setting or individuals studied, a problem known as reactivity, may occur.
3. The data obtained through the standardized open-interview is limited to the questions asked.
4. The generalizability of the data is limited to preservice teachers trained in a PDS for students with ED.
5. Issues of legitimacy and credibility should be noted, when using qualitative procedures for evaluation purposes, when the interviewer does not collect the same information from everyone who is interviewed.


The following are delimitations the study:
1. The generalizability of the themes that will emerge from the data collected is limited to the cohort of graduate students enrolled in The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Department of Teacher Preparation and Special Education, Programs for Teachers for Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance, Pathways/Hyattsville graduate internship program.
2. The applicability of this study is limited in scope in terms of length of study.
3. The population of this study is confined to the 1997-1998 cohort of graduate students enrolled in The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Programs for Teachers for Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance, Pathways/Hyattsville graduate internship program.
4. This study is specific to the training of teachers of children with ED.


The literature revealed that students training to be effective teachers do progress through a series of developmental stages (Adams, 1982; Bolin, 1977; Cain, 1994; Caruso, 1977; Evan & Tribble, 1986; Floden & Feinman, 1981; Fuller, 1969; Fuller & Bown, 1975; George, 1978; Gregorson, 1994; Hall & Rutherford, 1976; Iannaccone, 1963; Katz, 1972; Reeves & Kazelskis , 1985; Ryan, 1996; Saks & Harrington, 1982; Sitter & Lanier, 1982; Unruh & Turner, 1970). It is necessary to identify and characterize these stages. The literature revealed that a gap existed in the reporting of developmental process of preservice teachers of students with ED in a one-year full time internship in a PDS. The literature also showed a gap regarding the opportunities for learning afforded to the preservice teacher of students with ED in a PDS. The findings of this study will begin the development of a theory about preservice teacher development stages of teachers training to work with students with ED upon which further studies can be derived. Teacher educators need reliable data to guide them in determining appropriate preservice teacher training in general. Training for teachers of students with ED needs to be more supportive of preservice teachers' needs so that the retention rate of those trained will increase. The answers to the research questions asked by this investigation may be one way to assist in the development of preservice training for teachers of students with ED. Therefore this study was designed to identify and describe the nature of the developmental stages of a preservice teacher enrolled in a one year full time graduate program at a PDS training to work with students with ED.

This research study sought to determine how preservice teachers for students with ED in a one-year full time PDS progress through a series of developmental stages. This section presents the findings of that effort. The research questions were formed and served as the context for supporting the findings. Data was collected from the following sources: preservice teachers' journals, formal and informal interviews with preservice teachers, interviews with preservice teachers' significant others, preservice teachers' statements of educational philosophy, videotaped sessions of teaching episodes, and preservice teachers' discussions from weekly seminars. Data is triangulated through using the stated means and tools. This means that I compared and contrasted the data I collected from the various data sources (i.e. journal, interview, videotaped teaching episodes) to check for similarities and consistency in the data.

To answer the research question, the findings will be presented in bi-monthly time epochs. The epochs are as follows: September/October, November/December, January/February, and March/April. In each section, I first provide the context for what was happening during that time frame. Then I will explain each theme with example from preservice teachers' comments. Within each epoch, five of the most common themes are discussed and illustrated. Emergent themes are representative of the intersection of voices of the participants in the study. As a result of between-case analysis, strong themes are identified and presented (Miles and Huberman, 1994). These themes are interesting between case themes that resonate in all of the case studies (Miles and Huberman, 1994) (see Table 4).

Epoch: September/October

During the September/October period, the preservice teachers were enrolled in twelve hours of graduate coursework. Preservice teachers were registered for classes in development, urban education, behavior management and the internship. On site they assumed the position of assistant teacher. During this phase of the internship, preservice teachers conducted initial observations in the school. Several preservice teachers planned and implemented lesson plans. The training teacher and the University supervisor decided when they thought the preservice teachers could increase their responsibilities in terms of their teaching load. This decision was made on an individual basis. It should be noted that in November, one of the GWU preservice teachers withdrew from the program of study. He was not replaced. This left one preservice teacher without a preservice teacher partner as a result. From the data collected, emergent themes in September/October included (a) understanding, predicting and managing behavior; (b) initiating positive teacher/student relationships with students; (c) initiating proactive and professional relationships with staff; (d) identifying and clarifying roles and responsibilities of ideal teacher; and (e) establishing a balance between the theoretical tenets of the GWU graduate program and practices taking place at the P/H PDS site. These emergent themes represented the between-case analysis of the collective voices expressed throughout the data.

Table 4 Between-case Analysis

Emergent themes

Student behavior
Relationship with students
Relationship with staff
Role identification
Student involvement
Behavior management
Relationship with students
Relationship with staff
Relationship with training teacher
Relationship with staff
Relationship with training teacher
Lesson planning
Organizational changes
Student behavior
Relationship with teacher training
Teaching strategies
Student behavior
Relationship with staff
Relationship with students

Emergent Themes

Theme 1: Student Behavior

Preservice teachers were most preoccupied with the behavior of their students during the September/October period. Preservice teachers wondered how to manage the behavior of the children specifically. Preservice teachers believed that students would want to behave properly in an effort to win the approval of their new teachers. This however was not the case. One preservice teacher remarked to me during an informal interview,

"...I used to think that if the students liked me and know that I cared about them, then they would behave properly in order to please me. However that is not the case with our homeroom, I am trying to discover ways that will allow me to manage our homeroom when I begin teaching. For right now it looks like a hard time."

Another preservice teacher recognized the importance of having the lesson well planned and prepared. When the teacher was teaching, the students were engaged and as a result behavior problems were minimal. The preservice teacher recognized that children need to understand what is expected of them so that they can rise to that level of expectation. A preservice teacher offered,

"...It really makes a difference to have everything prepared and ready for [the students] right from the beginning and it also helped a lot that my [preservice teacher] partner and I are able to agree in everything before we're confronted with a class full of kids who are waiting to test us. I am still being tested by some of my students…but I am feeling more comfortable with giving them circles and checks on their point sheets. I was letting them know that cussing wasn't okay but I was not backing up what I was saying until the third warning. I just have to make sure that the students know what to expect if they do the behavior."

Through the use of videotape, each preservice teacher had the opportunity to review his or her teaching performance. In this example, the preservice teacher honestly reflects on his behavior management technique in the September/October timeframe. He shares,

"....Tonight I will watch my videotape and like the team who loses the game they weren't supposed to lose, I'll figure out where I made the mistakes or how to improve on my delivery and overall performance on guiding the students through the lesson. I want to be the conductor (maestro) of the orchestra playing a beautiful symphony of harmonious melodies. My assessment is that I was more like a jazz improvisationalist! The various behaviors and histrionic outbursts were enough to drive me crazy, however I understand that I need to learn how to help these very students manage their experiences in the classroom in a nurturing and compassionate manner, I wonder though, how do you attack the behavior without attacking the individual?"

Theme 2: Relationship with students

Overall the second area of concern in the September/October period was that of relationship with students. During this time, preservice teachers were focused on initiating and maintaining relationships with their students. Often preservice teachers were most concerned with seeking approval and recognition from the students. One preservice teacher wrote in her journal,

"I feel like the typical first year teacher. It's not so much that I care if the students like me, than it is that I don't want to appear mean."

When asked in an informal interview, another said,

"I remember a time during my internship this past month that I felt positive about. It was when I felt most proud and most recognized. About a week ago right in the middle of my lesson, someone came and knocked at the door and asked if Mr. Hart could be invited over to the lower group's classroom for a while. They wanted to me to watch their presentation. They had worked on a social studies lesson and were allowed to invite one guest to hear their presentation. This is my math group and of everyone in the entire school they chose me and I felt really proud of that. It makes me feel great."

One preservice teacher discovered that in establishing a relationship with the student, she was allowed to then set limits on his interfering behavior in the classroom. She explained the importance of establishing a trusting relationship with her student Mondell. By earning the child's trust the preservice teacher increased her chance to effect and influence the child. The preservice teacher had spent time with the boy. She listened to, remained consistent, and had shown care and compassion for him. She maintained a structured learning environment that provided him with safety and security. Trust developed. Through committing to develop a relationship with her student, the preservice teacher was able to make gains with him. She told me in an interview,

"I am working hard to build trust with my students, especially Mondell. He is very difficult to get close to, but I feel that I have made progress. However, we are at a point where he is really testing me, and I had fallen right into it. I would tell him to stop doing something over and over again but I was not comfortable with [setting limits on him]…The other thing that happens with Mondell is that it is easy to get into a power struggle with him. I talked with my training teacher about it and it helped a lot. [She told me that] Mondell gets almost no nurturing at home, and his relationship with his grandmother and mother consists of a lot of yelling and screaming at each other. [She suggested that] when I talk to Mondell I need to make sure that I am always gentle and caring with my tone of voice and body language, so that he doesn't see me as an authority he has to fight against. I've been doing it and it makes a big difference… As far as feeling comfortable with redirecting him now, I am now backing up what I tell him, I'm now using the point sheet and that too makes a difference. He comes over and sits next to me a lot, so I am feeling more comfortable interacting with him because I am beginning to feel more confident in my ability to help him."

Theme 3: Relationship with staff

The third primary concern that emerged from the data during the September/October period, was that of relationship with staff. The preservice teachers were thinking about their association with the PDS site staff. They realized their place within the hierarchy. As newcomers, the preservice teachers learned that they would have to slowly interface with the existing establishment. Roles and responsibilities of preservice teachers were delineated to the returning paid staff members and the preservice teachers learned that they were first expected to observe the policies and procedures of the system. One preservice teacher who was used to working in a school setting contributed in a discussion,

"I am used to being involved and I am used to everyone working from the same corner but it seems as though here you cannot just jump in."

Another expressed his frustration. He was hopeful that after he had been at the site for an extended period, his opinion would be valued. Having worked in a school environment, this preservice teacher understood the expectations in a staff meeting. Based on his prior experience of being actively involved, he readily volunteered to participate in after-school meetings. Within days of the first week of school he informed me,

"I guess they are not going to listen to me. I wonder if after I have been here for a while if they will start. It seems like the preservice teachers could greatly offer a new perspective to the discussions…but for now I guess I'll try to keep my mouth closed and observe."

Theme 4: Role identification

During the September/October period, the fourth theme of concern was role identification. Many of the teachers in training wondered what it would be like to be in charge. It was during these early months, where most of them were observing the training teachers handle and teach the children, that they began to idealize how the perfect teacher might behave. In the classrooms each day, they began to clarify and define roles and responsibilities of a teacher. Resting on limited professional experience, the preservice teachers expressed their intentions if the classroom were their own. One said,

"I look at my training teacher and wonder why she does the things she does. If I were the teacher I would be nicer to the children and give them more choices. She seems so controlling. I would not use these point sheets to control behavior if this was my classroom. I would teach from a strength-based perspective and drop this controlling and coercive system of point sheets and punishment."

One of the younger preservice teachers suggested that the teacher be more flexible. She commented during seminar,

"It is so beautiful outside, why doesn't the teacher teach outside? I would take these children outside and rest under tree and teach there-- if I was in charge."

After spending only a few weeks as an observer in the classroom, one of the preservice teachers concluded that the training teacher was not instructing the students in a way that met the instructional needs of the children. In an informal interview, the preservice teacher offered this suggestion:

"If I were the teacher I would teach the students material about topics that were relevant to their lives. Teaching from this basal reader provides little context and I do not think the students are motivated as a result. How does a little black boy from the ghetto understand about corporate business technology? This teacher does not understand what these children need. I do."

Role 5: Balance

The fifth major theme in September/October was that of balance. The preservice teachers had taken several graduate courses in the previous summer including analysis of teaching and methodology courses. As the students advanced educationally it seemed that their attitudes and beliefs tended to become increasingly more liberal and progressive. However, the impact of the graduate education didactic courses faded as a result of the teaching experience. One of their overarching struggles was that of blending the philosophical set of the University with that of the on-site PDS. Theoretically, not all struggles translated into practice. For example, the preservice teachers had learned how to establish a therapeutic milieu. Experts, such as Long and Morse (1996) consider this to be best practice. However in the PDS, training teachers were not always of the same mindset as the preservice teachers, often their philosophies were different. One preservice teacher said,

"It does not seem as though I share the philosophy of the school. I want the children to live in an environment where their needs are met first. In this graduate program, we are taught to ask ourselves, 'Whose needs are being met?' The answer is always supposed to be "The children's!" I find that this is not always the case here at the site. Maybe when folks are on the front lines for a while they tire. It seems like their needs are being met first, especially when we are talking about transition planning for some of the kids."

The preservice teachers realized that they would have to find a balance that they would feel comfortable with in terms of juggling differing philosophies. One preservice teacher summed up the situation when she wrote about the challenges of teaching math to her students as a result of conflicting philosophical strategies,

"I have one concern and it's how the teaching philosophy of the University clashes with that of my training teacher. I am not a training teacher myself so I am influenced and respectful of my training teacher's decisions. But she acts in discordance with that of the messages I am getting from the faculty and staff of the college. I am trying to be able to discern what is good. I have to be able to discern what is going to work? What is best for me? What is best for the student at this point? …Should I continue to follow the lead of my teacher and incorporate the methodologies in which she uses…or else should I continue with the way that GW has taught me? The philosophies seem to be competing. I know GW teaches best practices but its me who has to be in the class with that teacher. I think she might accuse me of being oppositional if I don't follow her directives…I think its best for the students to follow the teaching tradition of GW but for now I am scared of changing from her."

The next section will define and illustrate emergent themes of the November/December time period extracted from the data collected for this research study.

Epoch: November/December


During November/December the preservice teachers continued to assume more responsibility at the PDS. They continued to plan and implement lessons and were included in the decision making process about behavior management and instruction. Continuing in the role of assistant teachers, the preservice teachers supported the classroom teachers when required. During this time period, most preservice teachers were teaching two subject areas a day to small groups of children. Most taught one large group lesson at least three times a week. In addition to assuming these responsibilities, the preservice teachers were experiencing changes within the Pathways organization. Two of the three training teachers resigned at the end of this time interval. These training teachers reported that the responsibilities of the position of training teacher interfered with their outside personal responsibilities and obligations. During this time in their lives, they felt that they did not have the necessary time required to accomplish their obligations to the site, the preservice teachers or their students with ED.

The emergent themes, surfacing during November/December, were (a) how to mange student behavior; (b) how to plan effective lessons of instruction; (c) initiating and maintaining student relationships; and (d) initiating and maintaining relationships with staff; (e) positively strengthening relationships with training teachers. Splinter themes in the November/December term included (a) how to involve and engage students in their learning; (b) how to identify, locate and gather needed material; (c) how to maintain a working relationship with the preservice teacher partner; (d) how to devise and deliver effective instructional strategies.


Emergent Themes

Theme 1: Student behavior

The overriding theme that emerged in the November/December period again was student behavior. Students often acted in defiant or oppositional manners and preservice teachers wondered how to intervene effectively. "When Marcellus threw the chair, I did not know what to do. I felt powerless," said a preservice teacher. Another wrote, "When Aiden knocked over the hamster cage, and it flew into the air and banged Sammy in the head, I thought, "Oh my! What do I do first? Find the mouse? See if Tommy is ok? Confront Aiden?"

Not all the children were like Aiden. Other children were more passive and reserved. Some withdrew. One preservice teacher noticed, "I saw Pauly looking into outer space. His eyes were glazed over for some time. I did not know how to get his attention." And another shared, "He hides all the time. I usually find him in his usual hiding spot. He crawls under the study carrel and sleeps. He's in seventh grade and he cannot read. I know he used to skip school a lot." Other children acted out sexually. One preservice teacher confessed, "I am frightened and threatened at the things Wally says that he wants to do to, for and with me. Sexually. Thugs on the street saying provocative things to me on the street do not even bother me like this child does."

The preservice teachers were beginning to recognize the severity of the children's disabilities and started to appreciate that they needed more strategies in which to deal with the children's interfering behaviors. One preservice teacher, recognizing her inability to curb the children's competing behaviors clarified,

"This has been a difficult week for me. Charlemaine has really gotten on my nerves with her verbal abuse, physical contact and setting up [behaviors]. She has been calling me 'horse', 'dog' and other names that the class has picked up on. Its like I have nine Charlemaines attacking me. The therapists have all spoken to me trying to determine strategies for correcting this behavior…. I have been very consistent with Charlemaine and she has only gotten worse…On top of everything going on with Charlemaine, I have problems with inappropriate sexual comments from several of the boys…For once in my life, I feel powerless around children. I had no idea how to handle the problem… I hope that was the last of it because if not I will dread coming here."

Another preservice teacher tried to justify her own feelings of hopelessness as a result of working with these, as she said, "bothered" children. She wrote,

"On Friday, Felicia was so upset. She was so upset that she pulled a chunk of her own hair from her own head. I was horrified. Her head started to bleed and everything! I was so repulsed that I could not react. Sheer shock. How am I supposed to handle a situation of that magnitude and what on Earth am I supposed to do now? I mean, I don't really want to go near that child. I feel so uncomfortable around her. Who knows what she will do next? These children are bothered! They make me feel this way. I am serious."

Other preservice teachers defined strategies they had used in order to restore order in their chaotic classrooms. One shared in an interview,

"I really feel confident that I am making progress in doing so. My lessons have been a lot better this week since I have been clearly stating my objectives and behavior rules."

Another mentioned the importance of establishing expectations, involving students in the lesson and establishing meaningful relationships as behavior management techniques. She said to me during a formal interview,

"I just feel like I have control over the kids when they think their lesson is interesting and I knew exactly what they were learning. This is a little-- no actually a lot different than in months passed. I plan for them based on the objective highlighted and as a result they are learning. I realize that I am now teaching material. Definitely. I got them interested in the lessons and I just thought that it was terrific. I realize that when the lesson is good enough, captures their attention, then I don't spend nearly the time telling them to 'stay on task' or 'do this' or 'do that'. Teaching does demand central issues clarity. I have to remember that the tighter I have the lesson planned the better the students will behave. Its like the credo, 'Learning is a function of task analysis and the depth of the interpersonal relationship."

Theme 2: Planning

The second main theme that emerged in the November/December time span was that of planning. Preservice teachers were mostly concerned with how exactly to plan a lesson. They worked on writing educational objectives that were observable and measurable. They then worked on task analyzing the concept that needed to be taught. They then developed activities in which to carry out the objective. Writing the lesson plan was difficult for them at this time. One asked, "What should I write down on the lesson plan for the relevancy to real life application section?" They struggled to make the lessons meaningful. Another asked, "What could be a motivating lesson to tempt their interest for my lesson?" The mechanics of writing the lesson proved to be challenging for them. "Can't I just teach them about batteries? Why do I have to plan it out so detailed?" The pre-service teachers accepted that instructional practice required a great amount of time planning. One preservice teacher shared,

"I am spending an extraordinary amount of time planning for my lessons. Sometimes it seems as though for a lesson do go off well it requires five times the amount of planning as it takes to deliver it."

Several of the preservice teachers planned for their lesson but were not successful in predicting the necessary amount of time needed to cover the material. One preservice teacher learned,

"I wish there were more free-time activities. Free time makes me nervous. I was thinking that I need to make some adapted card or board games that will help the students to review past concepts. I really have to structure those last few minutes for them that the lesson is over. Otherwise if they are playing the koosh ball basketball, they could get in fights and argue and their great academic period might end because I didn't put enough structure down for them. I was thinking of making a go fish game of planets. It's just hard to know what to do after the lesson you have planned is over. It's like this open vacuum of a space that I am not sure what to do."

Preservice teachers addressed the fact that planning a lesson required the teacher to be cognizant of their motivations and actions. This planning effort attributed to their conscious performances. One preservice teacher defined this when she said,

"It's like driving a car. These days I just get in the car and drive. I do not think about putting my foot on the accelerator. Now I am being asked to go back and think about each time I put my foot on the pedal. It's a very thoughtful and somewhat tense experience but I appreciate it because I know that my practice- and overall the children- are benefiting."

Preservice teachers discovered that planning takes effort and creativity. But they are fueled with inspiration once they realize that the planning pays off when they deliver the lesson. A preservice teacher explained in her weekly journal why:

"I have been doing a lot of thinking about how to make my lesson plans more personal and relevant for my students. I have started reading teacher magazines in search for help. [My partner] and I just sent away for a subscription for a magazine called Instructor. Also I feel that we are working hard to provide our math group with as much hands on activities as possible. I ordered a catalogue that sells manipulative to enhance our teaching of algebra; I am very excited about this because I believe our math group is learning a lot. I was apprehensive about teaching math, but now I am beginning to gain confidence. I realize that the more energy I put into planning before I teach, the better my students grasp the materials. It takes so much time but in the long run, the planning insures success in the presentation of the lesson."

Theme 3: Relationship with students

The third strongest message that emerged during the November/December period included the preservice teachers' preoccupation for building positive relationships with students. Preservice teachers were concerned with forming allegiances with their children. They expressed a desire to affiliate with the children in a way that would allow for kinship and alliance. Many of the students with ED in the preservice teachers' classes had documented difficulties of initiating and maintaining relationships with peers and adults. The students with ED often struggled with interpersonal relationships and resisted getting to know new adults. The preservice teachers put a lot of energy toward trying to gain students' approval. This preservice teacher who wrote in her journal illustrated their need for connection,

"At the Thanksgiving dinner, the school choir sang, I played the drums, and it felt great. When the students finished singing I received and gave hugs to several of the children. I thought this was especially important to do since some of the parents were not there who did perform. During my short practice sessions with the choir, they diagnosed me as "cool." Oh it feels really good to connect."

Several of the preservice teachers continued to want to be validated by their students. One preservice teacher in particular identified more so with the students and focused on gaining approval and acceptance from them. She was not yet able to focus on raising their self-concepts. Instead she expected them to do that for her. In this example, the preservice teacher was continuing to have her own needs met through her students. She shared during an informal interview,

"I have been having such difficulty stepping up to the plate disciplining the students and now I am trying to do that more. Like Angel for example. I had to redirect her yesterday and she ended up crying and had to be sent down to the crisis room because she had become so very unraveled. She was shouting, 'I hate you. You are the meanest teacher. I never want to see your ugly face again.' I hate it when she is mad at me. I work so hard for her. It's like she doesn't even care…Well I was so surprised when she came up to me in homeroom this morning and presented me with a tape that she had made for me last night. There were songs and stories she told on the tape…and she gave it to me…and since she gave me the tape I knew she liked me again."

A preservice teacher shared with me during an informal interview her desire to work through issues of racism with a student so that she could establish a relationship with him. This preservice teacher was biracial and she told me how difficult it was for one of her students, named Mondell, to accept her completely. She also was shorter than the student was, so to him he thought they could be peers. Mondell, was soft spoken and avoided much interaction with people, but he began to connect with this preservice teacher. Through this experience with Mondell she came to believe that teaching was dependent on the depth of the interpersonal relationship. She said,

"Mondell often has trouble in how he should perceive me. Sometimes he sees me as a teacher and sometimes he sees me as a peer. Sometimes I'm a good guy and sometimes I'm someone who he can depend on. Sometimes he sees me as a white person and sometimes he sees me as a black person, which he is always asking me about. Race is a big issue for him and he mentions it often to students and other adults…. He asked me are you white or are you black? I told him, 'Well, that depends on which parent you ask. My father is white and my mother is black."

Although he seem satisfied at the time with that answer, there are other times when the whole conversational issue resurfaces…."I set a limit on Mondell for being disrespectful and he shouted out, "White bitch!" That hurt my feelings. He has been raised in an environment where he never really got to know anyone white. So it's -- I'm-- confusing to him. Once I heard him say, I only like the black part of her…I hope in time he will continue to trust me enough to open up and see that I care about him."

Theme 4: Relationship with staff

The fourth greatest concern that came out of the data during the November/December period was the preservice teachers' relationship with staff members. They wanted to know where they fit in the framework of the organization. They concentrated on communication with the staff, understanding the pecking order at the site, and with their feelings as a result of their position on staff. One preservice teacher admitted,

"I feel so uncomfortable when I have to address concerns with other adults. I feel uncomfortable because I usually avoid this. I think. Therefore I am not really good at this. Maybe it's because I personally become defensive and analyze myself when I am confronted. Plus I know that other preservice teachers have confrontations and then project their anger on the message deliverer. If I am the deliverer then I have to be able to take what that person gives off and lets it roll-off or give back another response. I guess I have never mastered the ability to debate. As long as I can remember, I avoided them, I don't like the way they feel. I know that since I am working with people, I must somehow develop some comfortable way for me to confront people, address concerns and deal with or work through responses. I also feel that it is so necessary to have an outlet. Especially when I am frustrated. I experienced frustration this week with the staff. I resorted to crying in an area alone. I later regrouped and carried on. My frustration is from my current status of being a preservice teacher. I am still trying to find out how to teach in particular. I feel like I must be patient with myself as I learn…. Sometimes I feel like the staff expects me to be at a certain point with my teaching and yet other times I don't think they want to hear from me at all. Its like I am in the middle and I am not sure which way is up. I am trying to figure out where I fit in this hierarchy".

Theme 5: Relationship with training teachers

In November/December relationships with the training teachers were discussed. Two of the training teachers were leaving, so four of the preservice teachers were especially concerned with what the future might hold for them in the areas of training. How would the children be effected by this change of staff? Who would take their places? Other preservice teachers were focused on understanding the relationship between the training teacher and the preservice teacher specifically. Communication, power, boundaries and task distribution were areas of concern. Overall the preservice teachers expressed a need to be directed and coached. They looked up to their training teachers as role models and tried to solicit their acceptance, approval and appreciation. A preservice teacher shared in her journal her need and desire to be mentored,

"Each day, I feel more and more comfortable with my training teacher. She is so positive and supportive and I really need that. I am learning a lot from her. She really promotes the children's self esteem. I watch her when she teaches with intent and interest. I would like to copy her manner as best as I can. I listen to the words she chooses and the techniques that she tries. I admire how she has the ability to interact with children proactively. I think I can learn a great deal from her. I feel as though I have a good working relationship with her as well as a strong friendship."

A second preservice teacher revealed her thoughts on the division of power in her classroom. She stated,

"And in the classroom I still do not feel like I am in charge. I think that [the training teacher not being flexible] has a lot to do with it. She is not open to suggestion from us and I feel like she does not give us as much hands on experience, as let's say, other preservice teachers in other rooms. I think she doesn't want to give up the control."

A third shared her angst about the upcoming changes in personnel. In her journal she wrote,

The main concern that I have been thinking about is what kind of training teacher will we get? Who will we get for a training teacher? And what kind of classes would he or she use? And how-how my role is going to change in the classroom?

During the months of November and December, preservice teachers recognized the importance of their training teachers. Once they began to assume a bit of responsibility in the classroom, the preservice teachers recognized that the job of teacher was not as simplistic as they once had predicted. They looked now to their training teachers for role models. They valued training teachers who were "skilled," "positive" and "available."

Epoch: January/February


During the January/February time period, preservice teachers actively assumed responsibility for tasks in the classroom (see Appendix K). At this point they taught three subject areas a week. Most included large and small group instruction. In addition, preservice teachers were involved in decision making about behavior management and instructional practices. Pre-service teachers explored problem-solving tactics with students. They were recognized as co-teachers in January/February. During January/February the preservice teachers continued to take twelve hours of coursework. Their courses included context about students with characteristics of ED, assessment, research methodologies, and the internship.

It should be noted that when the preservice teachers returned from the holiday break in January, the site principal at Pathways/Hyattsville had been replaced. To replace the teachers, who had resigned, the organization hired two new teachers. One of the new teachers joined the staff in January and the other joined in late February. Emergent themes that surfaced during January/February included (a) planning, (b) materials, (c) organizational changes, (d) student behavior, and (e) relationships with training teacher.

Emergent Themes

Theme 1: Planning.
During January/February, the central theme that surfaced from the data was the issue of planning. Preparing and designing the lesson was the principal interest for the preservice teachers. Some worried about the time it took to plan for their lessons. Faced with more teaching responsibilities, the preservice teacher had to spend an increased amount of time planning for an increased number of academic class sessions. In addition to the time accrued in the field, preservice teachers had a richer understanding of the individual and developmental needs of each of the students at this point. They were trying to incorporate individualized objectives throughout their lessons as well.

The process of task analyzing the lesson took a tremendous amount of time. One of the preservice teachers explained to me, in an informal interview, why her lesson was problematic:

"At first I did not understand why I could not get the students invested in my math lesson. I was teaching a unit on dividing decimals and I figured that I had a well-planned lesson. Well it was well planned. But it did not meet their needs. As a matter of fact, it turned out to be quite frustrating for them. I realized that I was teaching over their heads and I expected them to get it. Instead I should have backed up a little and broken it down more for them. I had not task analyzed it nearly enough. Also I should have assessed the children myself to see actually what their strengths and abilities were. I frustrated them. Planning involves so much more than I thought."

A preservice teacher described out why she believed it was necessary to make time for planning. After we watching her videotape together, the preservice teacher said,

"I do not have enough time to plan adequately for my lessons. Otherwise, it's not like I can go into math class with a group of little eight year old kids without a thoughtful lesson and many pre-prepared[sic]hand on activities that will hold their interests. I am not just going to baby-sit them. I need to teach them something and in order to teach, I need time to prepare…I am very exhausted [because I do not have a permanent training teacher or a preservice teacher partner at this time] and I worry that my student are not receiving the best that I have to offer, because I feel like I am spreading myself out too thin. I do not doubt that I will make it through the program, but as I become weaker, my energy lessens."

A third preservice teacher accounted for the extraordinary amount of time it took her to plan. She said in seminar,

"How much time should I be spending on teaching one math lesson? I have 40 minutes to teach but since the kids are at all different levels I really create four different plans. Right now it is taking me about an hour and a half to plan a lesson that I teach to the whole group. I am still scripting it all out so I can know what I should say and all. But does that mean I should be spending several hours a night planning for that one class?"

Theme 2: Materials.
Gathering and collecting materials remained a chief concern throughout January/February. Preservice teachers were consumed with identifying necessary resources that would better enable them to teach their students. Several preservice teachers referred to their need to learn more about the subject matter itself. Finding materials that explained the subject area was a challenge for most of the preservice teachers at this time.

One preservice teacher was teaching a unit on food groups and thought she could teach them from her personal perspective. She figured out that it was first necessary to research, investigate and inquire about the subject. Another remarked,

"I feel like I have a better understanding of the basic material that I am teaching the students. I still spend hours of my free time on the weekends learning the information myself so that I can teach my students. Teaching is not telling. I have to know the material- the ins and outs of the subject. Social studies is hardest. I have to learn so much about history so I can have a handle on it. If the students ask questions I need to be grounded in the content myself. My undergraduate experience did not include a lot of history courses so I am finding that I must do a lot of the background work on my own. I cannot just teach from the book. And we really are not given great amounts of teaching materials at this school. The curriculum guides here are old and outdated. Even the maps and globes are dated. I am finding that the responsibilities of gathering recent and relevant materials that are enticing and on their grade level is a challenge but it is fun for me to learn at the same time. I am spending more time now on learning the subject matter than I am on planning. I was just thinking over the weekend how I am now able to plan a lesson in twenty minutes and it used to take me two hours so that's great. I feel comfortable with what I have learned how to teach and how to write lesson plans so far. Like I said my energy is now focusing on the learning of the subject area."

Another preservice teacher made public her struggle with finding teaching materials. She stated,

"I am struggling to find materials that I can use in the classroom. I mean I have been teaching from the book but now I want to use the book as a guide. I want to include props, like posters, toys, games and things to help my children visualize social studies. I think I should find related games and projects and workbooks for them to use. Should I buy them, make them or ask someone to get them for me?"

Another preservice teacher added a series of questions about where to locate materials.
"Where can I get the materials I need to teach? I need crayons and paper. I need poster board and notebooks for the children. Where can I get these things? "

Theme 3: Organizational changes.
During January/February preservice teachers were engaged in thinking about the changes taking place within the school organization. Two new teachers and a new principal joined the staff during this time and preservice teachers were battling with the site reorganization. Many decisions were being made at the central administrative office and preservice teachers were not privy to the motivation behind these the decisions.

"I miss my training teacher. So do the children," said one preservice teacher in an informal interview. The preservice teachers were not the only ones effected by or responding to the changes taking place in the system. One revealed in seminar (crying), "I think the social workers blame us for all of these people leaving. The teachers, they think, left because of the burden of having us preservice teachers. I am trying so hard to be a good teacher. I hate to think that I am a burden." Another, in seminar, told the group, "We are not wanted here. We are not appreciated here (crying). I know the staff misses the people who left and are angry at them for leaving but we are getting dumped on."

Changes in staff upset the school. Patterns of "familiarity," said one preservice teacher, were disturbed and the preservice teachers were left to handle the discordance. One frustrated preservice teacher declared,

"The sub is not helping! During sixth period it was total chaos. Delonte got punched and his mouth was all bloody. It all happened so quickly. The sub looked at me as if I was supposed to handle the situation all by myself. I just can't perform 150%! I am trying to do the best I can do…but I feel like I am sinking."

With a new principal, the preservice teachers had to learn about her expectations and style of management. Preservice teachers had to get to know the new administrator and had to develop an appreciation for her perspective. One preservice teacher summed up her dissatisfaction with the organizational changes during January/February in her journal.

"Change is so hard for me. Nothing here is like it used to be. The laws of governance are new and I am not sure where I fit in any more. I finally figured out this place and now it's all different. The walls of familiarity are crumbling down on top of me. New teachers, new principal, new University supervisor. I want it to go back to the way it used to be. The rules are changing too. It is so hard to switch gears."

January/February proved to be a time filled with great stress. Preservice teachers talked about being bewildered and distraught. With the added teaching responsibilities, the intensity of the University coursework, the daily demands of the troubled children, and having the realignment with the new organizational structure, many of the preservice teachers were overwhelmed. One preservice teacher revealed in her journal,

"This week I've experienced a feeling of despair. I feel like I have so much to do and so little time. I am wondering, thinking, how am I going to plan lessons, be a good teacher, take on more responsibility in this classroom, and anything else during the same timeframe. I still have not figured out a regular routine to get my planning and studying done. I am thinking about what to do and when to do it. I really appreciate this experience yet I have no idea how I am going to make it through."

Theme 4: Student behavior.

Student behavior was a topic of concern for the preservice teacher cohort through the January/February months. The preservice teachers graduate preservice teachers continued to be interested in their students' behavior however they started to shift the focus of their attention. Managing behavior was no longer their central concern. Instead they were beginning to recognize the difference between behavior management and behavior change. Preservice teachers agreed that in order to promote positive classroom behavior the classroom had to be structured and supportive. As teachers, they had to be calm, consistent and capable to be effective. One preservice teacher said,

"After my lesson this week in math, I have thought a lot about my behavior management system and how I can improve it. I agree that I need to be more consistent and I am struggling with a way to do that. I think that if I am consistent my students will feel safer. I believe that in my homeroom class I have established my expectations and boundaries clearly. My students appear to know what they can and can not do and rarely do they stray. However with my math class, it is a different dynamic group, with different needs. I am working on how to best teach them and manage them but I feel that it is a hard thing to do."

Preservice teachers were available at this time to test new techniques in order to promote positive student behavior and behavior change. One preservice teacher shared,

"At this point I am trying different techniques, the ones that haven't worked and try to reevaluate them and define them so that maybe they can be practical and effective for them to work. Recently I devised a ladder chart. The children have target behaviors and depending if they achieve certain obstacles during the lesson they move down the ladder. If the children are successful throughout the period their name eventually drops into the paper sack that is hooked onto the ladder. Those children whose names are in the sack are rewarded with a prize. I am pleased to say that the ladder continues to be motivating. I feel good that I have hooked them into the lesson."

There were several preservice teachers however who were continuing to wonder about behavior management. These preservice teachers were the preservice teachers who had not yet been delegated much authority in the classroom and as a result had limited opportunity to test various strategies to reinforce children's behavior.

"How do I get a child to stop the behavior that is distracting and get him back on task? What do I say? How should I redirect him? I don't want to do anything wrong. I am afraid to jump in and redirect the kids. I'd rather someone else do that. I can always call for backup. It's especially intimidating when a child who is big- tall and strong- gets threatening or violent."

Epoch: March/April

During March and April the intensity of the program continued. The preservice teachers continued with their twelve hours of coursework. Teaching responsibilities increased. In the classroom, the preservice teachers assumed additional teaching assignments. During this time-period, the preservice teachers began their intensive internship. The intensive internship is a six-week period during which time the training teacher is out of the room. The preservice teacher pairs assumed full responsibility for the daily operation of the classrooms.

Emergent themes that appeared through March and April included (a) perfecting the planning and organizing for instructional lessons, (b) identifying and executing effective teaching strategies, (c) intervening with inappropriate student behavior to create positive change, (d) initiating and maintaining working relationships with staff members on site, and (e) initiating and maintaining positive relationship with students.

Emergent Themes

Theme1: Planning.
During the months of March and April, planning was the primary focus of the preservice teacher group. Preservice teachers recognized that the energy invested in planning effected the implementation of the lesson positively. Preservice teachers expressed that planning no longer took as much time as in previous months. They understood that first the teacher must identify the objective to be taught. Then, the teacher would be able to design related activities. One of the preservice teachers demonstrated this understanding when she approached me and said,

"I knew what my objective was. I have made up ten activities that will reinforce that one objective. And when I am asked to cover information from my training teacher, I explain to her what my objective is. Once I target an objective I am sure to have a distinct point of direction."

Preservice teachers drew the connection between having well planned units of instruction and effective instructional delivery. This point was illustrated when one preservice teacher said,

"My unit is going so well. The planning is well worth it and as a result the students- and me- we know what to do, what to expect and where we are going. It is like we are taking a road-trip and we're being guided by our roadmap."

Another agreed, offering,

"At first I was very apprehensive taking on the study skills class of third and fourth graders. But it is actually turning out to be a very good experience. I find that they need a lot of structure and I'm planning my lessons in very structured ways and it's really helping. So the kids are learning a lot and I am seeing changing."

Theme 2: Teaching Strategies.
During the April/May session the preservice teachers concentrated on teaching strategies Not only were they considering offering information to the students but also they were also concerned with whether or not the students understood their messages. Preservice teachers researched methodologies and experimented with alternative practices. One preservice teacher justified her actions,

"Having varied activities during the lesson and really not depending on worksheets is better. It is just so simple to hand someone a worksheet. Trying to play games and do different things and having activities keeps it interesting and keeps the students engaged. What I mean by a game is a learning game, any simple game such as taking turns with answering reading questions and then moving a checker on the checkerboard. It doesn't have to be a board game really it can be any silly thing like tossing a beanbag when a child answered correctly, something different, something so that its just not a paper and pencil task. The key is to keep the motivational level high throughout the instructional period. It's reinforcing to what they've learned. The teacher can blend in a social skills lesson when they're playing a game so it is really like a dual purpose."

A second preservice teacher expressed a concern of hers about teaching strategies. She said,

"In the classroom I have become more diverse. By that I mean I used to just lecture, lecture, lecture a lot. I now use more manipulatives, and I've done a lot of group work so I've become diverse as a teacher."

A third preservice teacher shared during an interview,

"Right now my concern is how well I'm doing teaching reading, because I really, really want to be a good reading teacher. And there are so many different strategies and methods. I'm not sure which one works for me and which one will be most successful with my kids. So just trying everything and trying to find the one that I feel most comfortable with and really helping my kids to be better readers."

A final preservice teacher revealed what had encouraged her effective practice in March and April. She reported,
"There are several things that have helped me to be more effective in the classroom. First, I like to talk with other teachers and find out the methods that they are using. In addition, I like to ask other professionals who have been teaching for a while 'What works?' And adapting it to what works for me. Also, there is a lot of information out there about teaching reading, so just taking the initiative on my own to read up about it. And finally, I like to regularly talk with my students and ask them what they like and see what's working for them."

Theme 3: Student behavior.
Student behavior issues emerged as the third most prevalent concern during the months of April and May. Preservice teachers were more confident about working with the behaviors that students presented. They reported that they continued to explore different strategies to use with their students to curb negative behaviors. Knowing their students a little better assisted in this effort. One preservice teacher shared her success:

"I am more successful now because I am definitely clearly stating my expectations. What works for me is having a few classroom goals and then really knowing my students, their individual goals trying to really individualize the behavior management system."

Another reported her experience:

"I've learned that it is absolutely necessary to explain in detail all directions and expectations. I can never assume that a student remembers something from the day before. I've learned that if I've clearly communicated my expectations to each student it makes the situations that may arise much more matter of fact. If a consequence has been explained and used constantly there is little room for a student to argue."

One of the preservice teachers recognized that like teaching academic material, expected positive behavior should also be taught. She shared her experience:

"Before the directions would go in one ear and out the other but now the directions are being followed. Using repetition and modeling as strategies for intervention has greatly enhanced my practice. I am doing a lot of teaching and modeling behaviors that I really didn't think about but now I see the importance of modeling what you want the kids to do. For example, I am trying to teach them how to respect one another. I have had to break down the construct and teach them through role-play and guided imagery. I am teaching them in social skills about the construct 'friendship.' We practice friendship skills. They have to be taught what sharing is. I hope that if they continue to practice these skills then they will translate them to the playground. "

Another preservice teacher confessed her difficulty working with a student named Anthony. She told about the encounter that changed her perspective. As a result she was able to more effectively interact with the student. She wrote,

"What [the guest speaker] said last night [in class] left a big impression on me. I had told her about my inability on some days to have empathy for troubled children like Anthony and she said something that changed my opinion on the situation. She said, 'Imagine this, imagine a child holding a large tray full of glasses. Now imagine that same child running down the street holding that large tray of glasses. Now imagine that that child has fallen and becomes badly injured. He is all cut up.' Then she asked me what would I do? I answered that I would run over to the child and smother him. I told her I would get band-aides and try to help him stop bleeding. [The speaker] shouted, 'Exactly! And now that is how I want you to respond to little Anthony. He is so troubled that it is as though he is injured. Run to him and treat him with the love that you would with the bleeding child. Anthony is indeed bleeding all over the place.' Consequently, I am now able to let Anthony in. I do not think, 'Oh he is upsetting me.' I think now, 'How can I help him?' This change of perspective makes it all different now for me. "

Theme 4: Relationship with Staff.
The fourth primary concern of the preservice teachers was the issue of relationship with staff. Preservice teachers wondered about the degree to which their opinions mattered and if they were being heard. They started to recognize that their commitment to the program was only for the year and the idea that they were replaceable became a factor. One preservice teacher presented,

"Sometimes I feel as though they want my opinion in staff meetings and other times I hear them when they do not. I have learned to be more of a spectator than a participant at their table but somehow I wish it could be different. I know that next year a new group of preservice teachers will come in here and we will be gone so I sort of understand, its just that sometimes I believe I might have a relevant fact or impression to contribute. I still struggle with all of that."

Presentation and Explanation of the Theoretical Model: A Model of Stages of Preservice Teacher Development

This section presents a description of how the theoretical model was generated and explains the model and its stages. While I was collecting and analyzing the data for this study I realized that despite preservice teachers' prior individual experiences and backgrounds, they experienced similar developmental changes. Through the analysis of the data using both single and cross-case analysis and axial coding strategies, I was able to identify common themes and perspectives on central issues in order to gauge the developmental stages of the full time preservice teachers. Whether (a) teaching a subject area such as math, reading, language arts, science, social studies, health or science; (b) monitoring a duty such as recess, break, lunch or bus; (c) participating in a multi-disciplinary PDS staff meeting; (d) intervening with a child's disruptive behavior; (e) looking for a job; (f) engaging in a discussion with a training teacher or preservice teacher partner; (g) completing assignments for graduate study; or (h) speaking up in graduate school classes, I noticed that each of the six preservice teachers, while their individual contexts varied, they experienced similar feelings, thoughts and behaviors. These were (a) confidence, (b) fear, (c) caution and (d) competence. Through the iterative processes of identifying and classifying themes with developmental processes, I was able to identify the specifics of the theoretical model; namely, that these feelings accurately described the stages of preservice teacher development. The PDS environment and the opportunities afforded for learning provided the rich context in which the themes emerged.

In this four-stage model, Stages of Preservice Teacher Development, each stage represents a period of development (see Figure 1). These stages are labeled according to the predominant feelings, thoughts and behaviors of the preservice teachers. The preservice teacher progressed through each stage, not bound by time intervals, but based on experiences in the PDS and the degree to which the preservice teacher had developed insight from those experiences. Therefore each preservice teacher could experience multiple stages at any one time depending on the concerns with which they were dealing. If the preservice teacher progressed to another stage without the necessary experience and insight, they seemed to fail. As a result, the preservice teacher returned to a previous stage to acquire further experience and insight. The preservice teachers moved at variable rates and not in a linear fashion within these developmental stages. However, there appears to be a linear progression from confidence to fear to caution. There is a more regular iteration between fear and caution for more prolonged periods of time than between any other stages. The following section discusses each of the stages in detail by defining the stage, illustrating the stage with behavioral and psychological examples and identifying the phenomenon associated with experiencing other developmental stages. These stages are not correlated to time periods (i.e. September or October) or concerns (i.e. student behavior). Each stage was identified throughout the course of the internship. The stage is dependent on the life cycle of the concern not the life cycle of the internship. Each preservice teacher expressed multiple concerns and multiple stages simultaneously.

Stage I: Confidence
The first stage of the model is confidence. Webster (1913) defines confidence as "the act of confiding, trusting or putting faith in; trust; belief; state of mind characterized by one's reliance on himself or his circumstance; feeling of self-sufficiency; such assurance lead to a feeling of security" (p. 292). In this model, the preservice teachers approached new situations with a feeling of confidence. For example in September following an observation of a training teacher, one preservice teacher said,

'I think I would have divided the group into three groups and have them do group projects rather than teach the whole group in one large lesson like [the training teacher] is doing. Then I could group the children in terms of abilities. "

A preservice teacher told me how thrilled she was to gain more responsibility in the classroom. She said,

"My training teacher has assigned the health class to me and I am extremely excited. Although I have never taught the fourth and fifth graders before, I am looking forward to the chance to work with them. We can make things out of clay and sing songs and role play. I think I can involve them a lot more actively in the lessons. I have been used to working with teenage boys who don't want to be active so this will be a fun change for me! "

Another preservice teacher, during a formal interview in April, expressed,

"My relationships and the teaching are going wonderful[ly]. I can actually see and feel my relationship with students growing. When I think back to the first weeks of school, I was so scared of the kids and timid in my actions with them. As I develop I am becoming more and more confident in my interactions. I used to stick to my lesson plan like it was a manuscript. I would plan out what I would say during the lesson the night before. I'm feeling more confident now that I can stray away a little if the situation calls for it. I'm trying very much to pick up on the psychodynamic information available and make accommodations to meet the kids' needs. It's not always easy though."

In each of these examples the preservice teachers had a goal and felt confident in obtaining that goal but had not engaged in it. Preservice teachers advance to other stages when they admit to themselves that they are prepared to take the challenge of accomplishing a new goal. Setting the objective for themselves enables them to experience another stage.

Stage II: Fear
The second stage is fear. Webster (1913) defines fear as "a painful emotion or passion excited by the expectation of evil or the apprehension of impending danger; apprehension; anxiety; alarm; dread" (p.547). In this study, preservice teachers experienced the feelings of fear when they entered a new situation and realized the magnitude of the task. They were overwhelmed by insecurity and unable to take action. For example, a preservice teacher expressed her feelings,

"On the tape I noticed I became red in the face. There were red splotches on my neck. It was sheer panic. I felt so unsettled and unsure of my abilities. I just knew that I did not want to fail. I remember thinking, 'I don't know what to do. I just stood there. The kids were running all over the classroom and I couldn't even open my mouth."

A second preservice teacher remembered an interaction. She told me in an interview,

"What if they don't listen to me? I do not even know what to do! Sometimes, I feel like they have the power of giants. When Terrell says, I am not going to do my math and I am not even going to come over to the table to be with the group…and you can't make me' I wonder in my head, 'oh God, he is right. I can't make him. For one thing he is taller than I am and bigger and stronger than me and for another what am I going to do? Pull him across the room by his arm? What would the other kids think? And what if he lashed out at me for touching him?…you know, it's not that I am that I scared of him, so I leave him alone. If he wants to pull his hood over his head and sleep then I have no choice but let him."

A third felt panicked about unfamiliar subject matter. She reported,

"I have to teach polynomials. I do not think I ever got a grip on those myself when I was in school. I have the worst case of cold feet every time I sit down to plan for that class. I do not even know where to start! "

One preservice teacher shared with me during an informal interview,

"I was standing there in front of the group. My lesson was planned but I was too scared to react in a timely way. I held my reading book in front of me. I followed my scripted plan word for word. I was trying to stay on target, was watching the clock, checking off items on my agenda, but I did not hold their attention"

Another confessed although she thought she was adequately prepared, she did not convey that message when her university supervisor observed her in the classroom. During an informal interview, she reflected,

"I knew what I wanted to say but my supervisor was seated in the room taking notes about how I was teaching. That she was there watching me stayed in the forefront of my mind. I knew what I wanted to say to the kids. The exchange was going on in my head. But I could not explain what was happening. Stuck in verbal and active quicksand, I could not speak or move. It was like I became paralyzed. It was a crippling experience for me."

The preservice teachers advanced to the next stage when they engaged the task that once immobilized them. The next stage in the model is the stage referred to as caution.

Stage III: Caution
The third is caution. Webster (1913) defines caution as "a careful attention to the probable effects of an act, in order that failure or harm may be avoided; prudence in regard to danger; provident care" (p.229). In this study, preservice teachers in the PDS experienced caution when they engaged in the task that they had once feared. They turned fear into action. Their action was characterized by wariness. For example, one preservice teacher learned, "One big thing that I really had to understand is that I don't have to use the math book…The most important thing to me is to keep [the students] motivated and help them learn math." She came to the realization that she didn't have to rely on the texts as guides. She chose to take the risk of laying down the book as script and experimenting with alternative methodologies. Concentrating on keeping them both perplexed just short of frustration and engaged allowed the preservice teacher the ability to meet their educational needs at a different level. The preservice teacher learned that she did not have to hide behind the book. She began to use the classroom space more. Once glued to the chalkboard, standing erect, this preservice teacher delivered her message as if she was giving a speech. Eventually she granted herself the professional permission to do what worked with her students. She learned to physically move around the room so that she would be available to respond to the individual needs of her students. This simple movement was difficult at first for her. One moment she would proceed toward a student either to answer a question or to use proximity control (a behavior management intervention), yet moments later, she would return to the front of the classroom clinging to the chalkboard. In time and with practice, she gained more comfort in moving about the room. One preservice teacher said,

"I feel more comfortable taking the risk now. I have decided that I might actually have the ability to get it right so I am going to try. I noticed that today I have started to turn the corner in setting limits on my disrupting students. On the videotape we just watched, I could see myself walking over to Christopher who was flexing his arms threatening to punch JR. I gave them a warning and let them know what the consequence would be if they did not follow my directions. "

There were two directions the preservice teachers took after engaging in the task that they had identified. When successful in taking the risk, preservice teachers advanced to the next stage. Preservice teachers had the chance to experience success immediately and their confidence increased and the preservice teachers thrived. However if the preservice teacher proved to be unsuccessful after taking the risk, insecurities and uncertainties built. The unsuccessful preservice teacher at this point was immobilized returning to the fear stage.
It was not unusual for a preservice teacher, while learning something new, to vacillate between the fear and caution stages repeatedly. Often the preservice teacher traveled between a state of being preservice teacherally and externally apprehensive. The preservice teacher often passed through these two stages, one after the other, for an extended period of time. This continued until they were able to move to another level. Movement required sufficient development of insight, skill, and experience.

Stage IV: Competence
The fourth stage is competence. Webster (1913) defines competence as "the ability to answer all requirements in a sufficient, capable, and qualified manner" (p.284). The preservice teachers, in this stage, were able to be effective practitioners. Preservice teachers in this stage were deliberate, intentional, and purposeful in their actions. In stage IV the preservice teachers expressed capable and competent behavior. Their behavior is characterized as authentic expression. For example, one preservice teacher wrote,

"I feel pretty comfortable now when my lesson is over before the end of the period. I have established more routines for the children in terms of what we will do in a given period. I used to stop when the lesson was over and the objective had been met. Months ago I was not able to rehearse how long an activity might take because I was so new at this teaching thing but now I can better predict how long something will take. There are times though when we covered all the material I had thought we should and instead of freezing, I continued on and either reviewed or extended the directed practice. Teaching really requires you to make a thousand tiny decisions in every hour. I never thought about that, but it's true. Every move requires a thoughtful decision. This dilemma is now considered for me to be just one more [decision] along the way. I am thinking now about how I could foster a strengthened sense of community between the children here at this school. I am thinking of suggesting to my principal ideas that I have."

After achieving the goal they set out to accomplish, the preservice teachers are energized by their confidence. This positive state of mind of having achieved a goal encouraged the preservice teachers to achieve additional objectives. The preservice teachers identified new aims re-entering Stage I: Confidence. With these new goals, progression through the stages is repeated.

This theoretical model, A Model of Stages of Preservice Teacher Development, represents the continual passages through which one-year, full time preservice teachers of students with ED in a PDS progress. Despite their prior individual experiences and backgrounds, preservice teachers experienced similar developmental processes. The preservice teachers progressed through each stage, not bound by time intervals, but based on experience and the degree to which they had developed insight. If preservice teachers progressed to next stages without the necessary experience and insight, the preservice teachers would fail. As a result, the preservice teachers would return to the previous stages and acquire further experience and insight. Each of the six preservice teachers followed this pattern of four developmental stages. The preservice teachers moved at variable rates and not in a linear fashion. As stated before, each stage was identified throughout the course of the internship. The stage was dependent on the life cycle of the concern not the life cycle of the internship. Each preservice teacher expressed multiple concerns and multiple stages simultaneously. The next section of the chapter presents implications for further research and practice.

Implications for further research
These examples of developmental process suggest that some of the conceptual links in the model might be tested not only in a large, representative sample of preservice teachers of students with ED students, but also in a more diverse sample of educators. This sample might include preservice special educators of students with mild to moderate disabilities, preservice special educators of students with moderate to severe disabilities, regular preservice general education teachers as well as in-service educators. This model and supporting data suggest six propositions that might be especially promising for such empirical tasks.
First, the model suggests that the preservice teachers progressed through a series of developmental stages. In the discussion of emerging themes, specific stages were described through which the preservice teachers progressed. These stages were confidence, fear, caution, and competence. In the discussion of the proposed model, the pre-service teaching preservice teacher met new challenges at first with conviction, then with nervousness, followed by circumspection and finally with action. When successful, the preservice teacher was positively reinforced. As a result, refueled with optimism the preservice teacher began to cycle through the chain again. The implication is the following:

Proposition 1: When a preservice teacher of students with ED participates in a one-year full time internship in a PDS, the preservice teacher engaged a series of developmental stages. The stages that the preservice teacher will progress through include confidence, fear, caution, and competence.
Second, the model suggests that initially a preservice teacher experiences a sense of confidence when the preservice teacher identifies a goal to reach. The model suggests that by identifying this objective the preservice teacher becomes invigorated and believes in their ability to accomplish something. For example, a preservice teacher in stage one, confidence, stated, "I am going to be the best teacher this child ever had. I am going to be positive and accepting. I will care about this child. As a positive role model for him, I will be regarded as important in his life." The implication is the following:

Proposition 2: When a preservice teacher of students with ED participates in a one-year full time internship in a PDS identifies a goal to try to obtain, the preservice teacher becomes confident.
Third, the model suggests that preservice teachers of students with ED in a one year full time program in a PDS become fearful once the reality of the task they have decided to accomplish becomes apparent. Preservice teachers in the second stage, fear, expressed that they felt "paralyzed." One preservice teacher wrote in her journal, "I thought I was prepared to intervene if my students started to fight with one another. I had a detailed plan of action that I had rehearsed repeatedly. Yet when Fernando challenged Ricky to a fight, I panicked. I forgot my plan and I stood there still- like a deer caught in the headlights- even after the first punch had been thrown." These data suggest a third proposition:

Proposition 3: When preservice teachers of students with ED participate in a one-year full time internship in a PDS realizes the magnitude of their identified goal, fear sets in.
Fourth, the model suggests that once the fear has subsided the preservice teachers of students with ED in a one-year full time internship at a PDS becomes cautious about accomplishing an objective. The study described the preservice teacher who was bale to put down her textbook down and experiment with instructional practices. She was able to reorganize her manner of instruction to include alternative strategies. In another example, the preservice teacher spoke up in staff meetings without feeling afraid to voice her concerns.
She was open to receiving suggestion from her colleagues. The implication is:

Proposition 4: When preservice teachers of students with ED participate in a one-year full time internship in a PDS confront their fears about their ability to reach a specified goal, the preservice teacher advances to a place where they are able to react cautiously.
Fifth, the model suggests that the preservice teachers of students with ED in a one year full time PDS are able to be effective in their practice once they had experienced a state of cautious trial and error. With both practice and insight the preservice teacher advanced to this stage of effective practice. During this stage preservice teachers were able to express themselves with clarity, certainty and confidence. For example, a preservice teacher remarked,
"At first I did not know how to intervene when two children were quarreling. I could split them up but within the class period they would be back arguing together again. At first I wasn't sure what to do. In the fall, I tried to apply what the experts in the behavior management literature, suggested. I needed more hands on tools so I tried to follow the rules of the school and implement the consequences that they had in place. I used the timeout, point sheets and the crisis room as options. But I felt still like I was not able to promote change in their behavior. They continued to be competitive with one another and tended to provoke one another to the point that the entire class became disrupted. I sat in on an intervention that a social worker did with the two boys. I sat them on opposite sides of the room. I talked to the boys separately. I just kept trying. One of the boys is very angry and can be quite intimidating. I had to feel secure with my ability to work with him and this took time. Finally this past week I feel more confident in my abilities to intervene purposefully. I was able to separate the two boys, ask them for their perspectives and perceptions of what they were so upset about and then together, with them, created a plan for action. We made a contract and I am pleased to say it is working! I know it's April, but I am getting it now. I can see the boys improved behavior and I know that I have been effectual in my effort."

These data suggest:

Proposition 5: When preservice teachers of students with ED in a one-year full time PDS, gain insight, skill and practice, they become open to take on further responsibility.

This research suggests that the preservice teachers for students with ED in a one-year full time PDS program are concerned with various matters throughout their graduate study. For example preservice teachers in this study were primarily concerned with behavior management, relationships, and teaching strategies.

There were splinter themes that seemed to be robust for several preservice teachers but not for the whole group. Examples of splinter themes that surfaced were boundary issues, counter aggression, and teaching strategies. Specifically, one preservice teacher was concerned with the nature and needs of this population of students. In the future further in-depth look at splinter themes would be necessary. An example follows:

"I learned a great deal by the psychiatrist who spoke at the case conference today. He spoke about Delonte in a way that I could better understand the nature of his disability. Understanding the circumstances of Delonte's past enables me to have a more compassionate view of his present. The DSM IV's classification and label of his disability did not seem to match what I felt was wrong with the child. The diagnosis stated that the child was oppositional-defiant and I figured he was depressed. The doctor agreed. The presentation and the discussion that followed were of interest."

In summary, this section presented six propositions that were suggested based on the findings of the research study conducted and areas for further in-depth case studies. Each of these areas would benefit from some further in-depth exploratory research. In addition we need to examine the mechanism that promote stage change. Also there needs to be more understanding of the process by which individuals move from stage to stage. These six propositions and the splinter themes indicate implications for further research efforts. In the next section I examine implications for future practice.

Implications for practice for teacher educators
There are many implications for the practice of teacher education based on this research. For the purposes of this section, seven implications will be presented. They are as follows:

1. Teacher educators need to attend to both the intra and interpersonal dynamics of their university students. Preservice teachers' behavior is directly related to their feelings of confidence, fear, caution and competence.

2. Teacher educators must be more directly involved, on a regular basis, to attend to the socialization of the preservice teacher to the field. While the PDS presents a rich opportunity for preservice teacher socialization, teacher educators need to be present on site so that preservice teachers' interactions are purposeful, productive and reflective.

3. Teacher educators must understand and appreciate that the PDS environment permits preservice teachers to make mistakes. It is within this context that preservice teachers can experiment and refine their practice. Teacher educators can support preservice teachers throughout this developmental process.

4. Teacher educators have the rich opportunity to conduct clinical intervention and supervision with their preservice teachers at the PDS. During this clinical intervention, teacher educators must capitalize on the opportunities to (a) help the preservice teachers tie theory to practice, (b) provide suggestions for improved teaching practice, (c) encourage preservice teachers to behave in a professional manner.

5. Teacher educators at a PDS must provide the opportunity to facilitate preservice teachers' reflective practice.

6. Teacher educators must be more directly involved on a regular basis with the preservice teachers at the PDS so that they can maximize the opportunities for professional influence.
Teacher educators must be directly and more regularly involved at the PDS in order to facilitate the professional dialogue between site staff, preservice teachers and university faculty. This study has implications for educators about how to work in a PDS environment including how to (a) invest in the inter-personal and intra-personal development of the preservice teachers; (b) permit preservice teachers to make mistakes; (c) utilize supervision time to discuss ties from theory to practice, suggest improved teaching practices and encourage professional behavior; (d) provide opportunity for reflective practice; and (e) become actively involved. The next section concludes with the use of this research as it is applicable to the PDS reform movement.

Recommendations applicable for the PDS reform movement

Research about the effectiveness of training in a PDS is scant. This study identified the opportunities that existed for training preservice teachers because of the full time involvement in a PDS. Teacher reform movements (Chapter 2) typically are short lived and their effects unsubstantiated through research. Recommendations from this study include informing the nation about PDS teacher education reform with further inquiry in both general and special education by further investigation into each of the sixteen opportunities identified in this study.

It is recommended that these opportunities be paired and correlated to determine if some are more important them others. This would assist the establishment of PDS by identifying those conditions more essential for quality training in PDS. The purpose of this close scrutiny is to promote a long lasting framework to enhance teacher education. Further, these sixteen opportunities for learning discussed in Chapter 4 of this study need to be analyzed in terms of their relationship with the recently developed draft PDS standards (Levine, 1997). Finally, it is recommended that as PDSs become recognized as the vehicle for teacher training, this model, A Model of Stages of Preservice Teacher Development, will be essential for teacher educators to train effective practitioners.


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